Midnite Bee-Beekeeper's: Article ARTICLES     BUCKFAST Origin: Brother Adam at the Buckfast Abby in England Cross of many races Strong Points: Good honey producer Low incidence of chalkbrood due to good housecleaning techniques Reports of disease resistance Produces little propolis/brace comb Do well in cold/wet spring Low amount of brood during fall (uses less honey stores during winter) Brood rearing ceases during late fall Build-up rapidly once started Weak Points: Slow to build-up in spring Less honey or pollen (depending on your area) due to erratic spring conditions (weather) Low amount of brood during fall (use less honey stores during winter)   STARLINE Origin: Not a true race (several Italian stocks combined) Strong points: Gentle temperament Early and fast build-up High brood production (lots of bees and honey) Weak points: Cold and wet springs (Maine) will reduce the nectar flow (pollen also) and you must feed these bees.   CAUCASIAN Origin: Caucaus and Little Caucaus mountains near the Black Sea and parts of Azerbaydzhan Strong points: Gentle Calm temperament Reduced tendency to swarm (this is because these bees slowly build-up in the early spring which reduces the amount of bees on the comb) Able to seek forage due to their ability to fly in unfavorable weather conditions (cool and wet) Weak points: Wet cappings Susceptible to Nosema Use large amounts of propolis   CARNIOLAN Origin: North and South of the Karawanken mountains (Austria and Yugoslavia) Strong points: Small clusters during the winter months During the spring,they build-up quite rapidly Calm and gentle Very little robbing Production of propolis and bur comb Weak points: Unknown at this time. I will add information when I do more research.   ITALIAN Origin: Apennine Peninsula located in Italy Strong points: Do not forage long distances Produce a lot of bees during brood rearing (lots of honey) robbing will occur Weak points: Because they do not forage for long distances, robbing will occur. These bees are colored focused and might lead to drifting in your bee yard. Feeding might be required due to their brood rearing late in the winter.   MIDNITE Midnite is a hybrid derived from Caucasian sources. The bees of a Midnite queen are dark color and extremely gentle. In fact, this hybrid was developed expressly for the hobby beekeeper. However, the honey producing capabilities of this hybrid are so improved that many commercial producers are now discovering and using it. In honey production capacity, it is now rivaling the Starline, while still retaining its gentle nature. In belief, dark bees are more resistant to mites. Note: I have the Buckfast, Starline, Italians and the Midnite honeybees in my yard. l will add more information about these bees as I progress in my beekeeping experiences. I will add the New World Carniolans in 1997. Midnite and Starline bees were obtained from York Bee Co. The Italian bees came from a nuc, supplied by a Maine beekeeper. Buckfast (queen) from a Canadian beekeeper.